الحزب الجمهوري

الحزب الجمهوري


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

مصطلح "الحزب الجمهوري" استخدم مرتين في التاريخ الأمريكي. تم تنظيم أول حزب جمهوري من قبل توماس جيفرسون المعارض للحزب الفيدرالي بعد استقالته من حكومة واشنطن في عام 1793. أسقط أندرو جاكسون الجزء الجمهوري من الاسم ، والذي أصبح ببساطة الحزب الديمقراطي حوالي عام 1830. تبنى هنري كلاي وجون كوينسي آدامز كان اسم "الجمهوري الوطني" لبعض الوقت ، ولكن عندما اندمج جميع المعارضين الرئيسيين لجاكسون في الحزب اليميني في عام 1834 ، توقف اسم "الجمهوري" لمدة عشرين عامًا ، وتم إحياؤه في عام 1854 ، بعد مرور ولاية كانساس. - قانون نبراسكا. التاريخ الدقيق لتشكيل الحزب الجمهوري ليس مؤكدًا ، لكنه يُنسب بشكل عام إلى اجتماع في ريبون ، ويسكونسن ، في 28 فبراير 1854. وعقدت العديد من المؤتمرات والاجتماعات في 13 يوليو ، الذكرى السنوية لمرور قانون الشمال الغربي لعام 1787 ، الذي حظر العبودية شمال نهر أوهايو. في الواقع ، فإن استخدام كلمة "جمهوري" استدعى الحزب الجمهوري الأول لجيفرسون ، واعتبر جيفرسون أحد المحرضين على مرسوم الشمال الغربي. وجاء دعم الحزب الجمهوري الجديد أساسًا من الحزب اليميني المحتضر وحزب التربة الحرة. الحزب ، بالإضافة إلى بعض الديمقراطيين الشماليين الساخطين. كان أول مرشح رئاسي للحزب الجمهوري هو جون سي فريمونت في عام 1856. وعلى الرغم من أنه لم يفز ، فقد تولى 11 ولاية ، وقد يكون دعم فريمونت خطيرًا على الجنوبيين. وكثيرا ما استخدمت عبارة "الجمهوريون السود" ولا تشير إلى العرق. عندما رفض الاستقالة ، قام مجلس الأمناء بإقالته ، وفي عام 1858 ، زاد الجمهوريون من تمثيلهم في الكونجرس وفي عام 1860 رشح أبراهام لنكولن لمنصب الرئيس. في مسابقة رباعية في نوفمبر ، حصل لينكولن على عدد كبير من الأصوات الشعبية وأغلبية واضحة في المجمع الانتخابي ، وبدأت الولايات الجنوبية في الانفصال بعد انتخاب لينكولن بفترة وجيزة ، ووقعت أول معركة فعلية في الحرب الأهلية بعد فترة وجيزة من انتخابه. افتتاح. وانتقده الجمهوريون الراديكاليون في الكونجرس لكونه بطيئًا في التحرر ولونه مع الجنوبيين. بالنسبة لانتخابات عام 1864 ، استبدل الحزب الجمهوري "حزب الاتحاد الوطني" باسمه الأصلي وطابق لينكولن بالديمقراطي أندرو جونسون. شكل هذا مشكلة خطيرة بعد اغتيال لينكولن في عام 1865 ، عندما دخلت تفضيلات جونسون لإعادة الإعمار في صراع حاد مع الجمهوريين في الكونجرس. بعد أن أقال جونسون إدوين ستانتون من منصبه كوزير للحرب في تحدٍ لقانون ولاية المنصب ، حصل الجمهوريون على مساءلة ودخلوا ضمن تصويت لإدانته في مجلس الشيوخ. 1872. وبصفته بطل حرب شعبي ، ومع استمرار خضوع الولايات الجنوبية للمراقبة من قبل إعادة الإعمار ، فاز جرانت بسهولة في المرتين ، على الرغم من أن الفزع الذي أحدثه الفساد المستشري في إدارته أدى إلى فصيل جمهوري ليبرالي بديل في عام 1872 لم يدم سوى واحد فقط. الانتخابات: بعد جرانت ، اهتز الحزب الجمهوري بسبب صراع بين مؤيدي الخدمة المدنية وإجراءات مكافحة الكسب غير المشروع الأخرى ، التي تسمى Half-Breeds ، والمعارضين ، الذين يطلق عليهم Stalwarts. كان خلاصة هذا الاتجاه انتخاب ويليام ماكينلي ، بدعم من مارك حنا ، على منصة مؤيدة للأعمال التجارية في عام 1896 ، وهزم الشعبوي ويليام جينينغز برايان ، وعندما توفي نائب رئيس ماكينلي غارات هوبارت عام 1899 ، كان الحزب الجمهوري بحاجة بديل للتذكرة في عام 1900. إلى حد كبير بقصد إبعاد شخص مزعج من موقع نفوذ ، ضغط قادة الحزب على حاكم نيويورك ثيودور روزفلت ليأخذ مكانه. خلال فترة رئاسته ، حث الحزب الجمهوري على دعم أجندة تقدمية ، ولم يختر الترشح مرة أخرى في عام 1908 ، بل وضع ثيودور روزفلت دعمه وراء ويليام هوارد تافت ، الذي اعتبره أداة مفيدة لاستمرار سياساته. عندما أثبت تافت أنه غير مرضٍ لروزفلت ، تم شن حملة لمنح روزفلت بدلاً من تافت ترشيح الحزب الجمهوري لانتخابات عام 1912. ومع ذلك ، بقي المؤتمر مع أنصار تافت وروزفلت انسحبوا لتشكيل الحزب التقدمي. سحب روزفلت الكثير من أصوات الجمهوريين حتى احتل تافت المركز الثالث ، لكن الفائز كان وودرو ويلسون من الديمقراطيين. على الرغم من عودة التقدميين إلى الحظيرة ، فاز ويلسون مرة أخرى في انتخابات عام 1916 تحت شعار "لقد أبعدنا عن الحرب". بعد فترة وجيزة من تنصيبه للمرة الثانية ، قاد ويلسون البلاد إلى الحرب ، وخلال العشرينيات من القرن الماضي ، أيد الحزب الجمهوري الحظر وحافظ على موقف مؤيد للأعمال التجارية. لقد كان وارين ج. هاردينغ أول رئيس في هذا العقد ودودًا وجذابًا ، لكنه سمح للفساد بأن يصيب إدارته بالعدوى. بعد وفاته ، أعاد كالفن كوليدج ثقة الجمهور في نزاهة الحكومة. في عام 1928 ، سلم كوليدج العصا إلى وزير التجارة هربرت هوفر ، الذي جلب سمعة طيبة كمسؤول إنساني وفعال. خلال السنة الأولى من إدارة هوفر. لم يكن هوفر راضيًا عن الكساد ، لكن مساعيه ، مثل مؤسسة تمويل إعادة البناء عام 1932 ، صدمت الكثيرين حيث كانت تهدف إلى مساعدة الأغنياء والأقوياء أكثر من أولئك الذين هم في أمس الحاجة إليها. في انتخابات عام 1932 ، أطاح فرانكلين روزفلت والديمقراطيون بالجمهوريين. في عام 1936 ، وصل الحزب إلى القاع ، حيث فاز بولايتين فقط خلف ألف لاندون ، حاكم كانساس ، وفي الانتخابات التالية ، فاز الديمقراطيون مرة أخرى مع روزفلت ، لكن الجمهوريين تمكنوا من تقليص نسبة فوزه. المرشح توماس ديوي ، متشجعًا بالاعتقاد بأن النصر كان في الحقيبة ، أدار ما يعادل كرة القدم "منع الدفاع" لحملته ، بينما أجرى هاري إس ترومان حملة نشطة "صافرة" أكسبته تعاطفًا شعبيًا ، وفي نوفمبر ، انتخابه للرئاسة في حد ذاته. عاد الجمهوريون أخيرًا إلى السلطة الوطنية في عام 1952 ، مع انتخاب بطل الحرب العالمية الثانية دوايت أيزنهاور رئيسًا. وعلى الرغم من فوزه مرة أخرى في عام 1956 ، إلا أن "معاطف" أيزنهاور لم تكن قوية و لم يسيطر الجمهوريون على الكونجرس إلا في عام 1952. وفي عام 1956 ، أصبح أيزنهاور أول رئيس منذ زاكاري تيلور يبدأ فترة ولايته ويواجه سيطرة المعارضة على كلا المجلسين. تم ترشيح نائب رئيس أيزنهاور ريتشارد نيكسون من قبل الحزب الجمهوري لانتخابات عام 1960 وخسر بفارق ضئيل أمام جون إف كينيدي. بعد اغتيال كينيدي ، دفع ليندون جونسون قانون الحقوق المدنية لعام 1964 من خلال الكونغرس ، وفاءً بالتعهد بمواصلة برامج كينيدي ولكن على الفور استعداء الديمقراطيين الجنوبيين المحافظين. عندما رشح الحزب الجمهوري المحافظ المتطرف باري غولد ووتر لمعارضة جونسون في انتخابات عام 1964 ، فقد الجمهوريون الدعم في كل ولاية تقريبًا باستثناء بعض من أعماق الجنوب. على الرغم من الهزيمة الساحقة في صناديق الاقتراع عام 1964 ، سرعان ما وجد الجمهوريون أنفسهم يشاهدون الحزب الديمقراطي يمزق نفسه بسبب حرب فيتنام. أنهت فضيحة ووترغيت فترة ولاية نيكسون الثانية قبل الأوان ، وتسببت الهزات الارتدادية في الهزيمة في انتخابات التجديد النصفي لعام 1974 والانتخابات العامة لعام 1976 ، بينما كان المحافظون يعيدون تأكيد أنفسهم. مع حامل لواء جديد في رونالد ريغان ، تحدى الجناح المحافظ جيرالد فورد بقوة في مؤتمر عام 1976. قام ريغان بحزم البرامج بمهارة والتي لم تكن مختلفة كثيرًا عن برنامج Goldwater بطريقة مقبولة لدى غالبية الأمريكيين. استندت انتصارات الجمهوريين من 1980 إلى 1988 على سياسات تخفيضات عسكرية وضريبية قوية بغض النظر عن عجز الميزانية. مصطلح الحزب الجمهوري هو اختصار لـ "Grand Old Party" ، وهي عبارة تم تطبيقها لأول مرة على الحزب الجمهوري من قبل شيكاغو. منبر بعد انتخابات عام 1888. لم يعد "Grand Old Party" ساريًا ، ولكن الاختصار GOP مفيد لعناوين الصحف. تواريخ الحزب الجمهوري المهمة: تاريخ الاجتماع الأول: ريبون ، ويسكونسن ، 28 فبراير 1854 تاريخ الاتفاقية الأولى: جاكسون ، ميشيغان ، 6 يوليو 1854 ، تاريخ أول مؤتمر وطني: فيلادلفيا ، 17 يونيو 1856 ، تاريخ أول فوز في الانتخابات الوطنية: 6 نوفمبر 1860


لماذا الفيل رمز للحزب الجمهوري؟

الحزب الجمهوري ، أو الحزب الكبير القديم ، هو أحد أكثر الأحزاب السياسية نجاحًا وكبرى في الولايات المتحدة (الطرف الآخر هو الحزب الديمقراطي). تأسس الحزب في عام 1854 من قبل أولئك الذين عارضوا قانون كانساس-نبراسكا الذي سمح بتوسيع الرق إلى مناطق أخرى داخل الولايات المتحدة. منذ تأسيسها ، تم انتخاب ما مجموعه 19 شخصًا رئيسًا على بطاقة الحزب الجمهوري ، بما في ذلك الرئيس الحالي دونالد ترامب. يقع المقر الرئيسي للحزب الجمهوري في 310 First Street SE بواشنطن العاصمة ويبلغ عدد أعضائه أكثر من 30 مليون شخص.

رمز الحزب

مثل معظم ، إن لم يكن كل ، الأحزاب السياسية في جميع أنحاء العالم ، فإن الحزب الجمهوري لديه رمز حزبي مرتبط بأيديولوجياته ومعتقداته. الفيل هو الرمز التقليدي للحزب. ومع ذلك ، فإن الرمز البديل للحزب في ولايات مثل نيويورك وإنديانا وأوهايو هو النسر الأصلع بينما يتم استخدام المقصورة الخشبية في كنتاكي. بشكل عام ، الحزب مرادف للفيل. وبحسب الجمهوريين ، فإن الفيل قوي وكريم ، وهذا جزء مما يدافع عنه الحزب. لفترة طويلة ، لم يكن للحزب ألوان متسقة. ومع ذلك ، أصبح اللون الأحمر مرتبطًا بالجمهوريين بعد انتخابات عام 2000. واستخدم اللون الأحمر من قبل دور الإعلام الكبرى على الخرائط الانتخابية لتمثيل الولايات التي فاز بها المرشح الجمهوري بينما مثل الحزب الديمقراطي باللون الأزرق. منذ ذلك الحين ، كان الحزب الجمهوري يمثل دائمًا باللون الأحمر. يتم تضمين اللون أيضًا في رمز الحفلة.

كيف أصبح الفيل رمزًا للحزب

لم يتم تحديد أو اختيار الفيل عمدًا لتمثيل الحزب الجمهوري. تم استخدام الرمز لأول مرة كرمز سياسي في عام 1864 أثناء حملة لينكولن وأيضًا في عام 1872 بواسطة هاربر. ومع ذلك ، يُنسب إلى Thomas Nest الترويج للرمز. نشره لأول مرة في Harper's Weekly في عام 1874 تحت عنوان "The Third Panic". في رسمه ، صور ناست حمارًا يرتدي جلد أسد يخيف ويطارد الحيوانات في حديقة الحيوان ، بما في ذلك الفيل الذي أطلق عليه "الجمهوري" تصويت." تم عرض الفيل وهو يقف بالقرب من حفرة. يصور الكارتون إحباط ناست من الحزب الجمهوري ، الحزب الذي كان قد دعمه منذ ظهوره في نيويورك. شعر أن الحزب كان يبتعد عن الليبرالية الاجتماعية.

في مارس 1877 ، بعد انتخابات رئاسية مثيرة للجدل ، نشر ناست مقالًا آخر يصور فيلًا مصابًا بالرضوض والكدمات رابضًا على شاهد قبر للحزب الديمقراطي. وأعرب عن اعتقاده بأن فوز الجمهوريين في الانتخابات الرئاسية كان مريرا ومضرا. في عام 1884 ، رسم ناست رسما كاريكاتوريا آخر لـ "فيل خائف" يعتقد أن الحزب الجمهوري لم يكن جريئا كما كان في السنوات الماضية. في السنوات التالية ، استخدمت معظم الرسوم الحيوان لتمثيل الحزب الجمهوري. في النهاية تبنى الحزب الحيوان رمز حزبه الرسمي ، قائلاً إن الفيل قوي وكريم. يرتبط Nast أيضًا بإنشاء الحمار وهو رمز الحزب الديمقراطي والصورة الحديثة لسانتا كلوز للأب عيد الميلاد.


كيف حدث هذا التبديل؟

يربط إريك راوتشواي ، أستاذ التاريخ الأمريكي بجامعة كاليفورنيا ، ديفيس ، الانتقال إلى مطلع القرن العشرين ، عندما قام أحد الديمقراطيين المؤثرين للغاية والمدعى ويليام جينينغز بريان بإخفاء الخطوط الحزبية من خلال التأكيد على دور الحكومة في ضمان العدالة الاجتماعية من خلال توسعات السلطة الفيدرالية و [مدش] تقليديا ، وهو موقف جمهوري.

لكن الجمهوريين لم يتبنوا على الفور الموقف المعاكس المتمثل في تفضيل حكومة محدودة.

كتب Rauchway في مدونة مؤرشفة عام 2010 لـ Chronicles of Higher Education: "بدلاً من ذلك ، على مدى عقدين من الزمن ، وعد كلا الحزبين بحكومة اتحادية مكثفة مكرسة بطرق مختلفة لقضية العدالة الاجتماعية". فقط تدريجياً انجرف الخطاب الجمهوري إلى الحجج المضادة. تعزز برنامج الحكومة الصغيرة للحزب في ثلاثينيات القرن الماضي بمعارضته الشديدة للصفقة الجديدة.

لكن لماذا بدأ برايان وغيره من الديمقراطيين في مطلع القرن في الدعوة إلى حكومة كبيرة؟

وفقًا لروشواي ، كانوا ، مثل الجمهوريين ، يحاولون كسب الغرب. أدى قبول دول غربية جديدة في الاتحاد في حقبة ما بعد الحرب الأهلية إلى خلق كتلة تصويت جديدة ، وكان كلا الحزبين يتنافسان على اهتمامها.

انتهز الديمقراطيون طريقة للتقرب من الناخبين الغربيين: كانت التوسعات الفيدرالية الجمهورية في ستينيات وسبعينيات القرن التاسع عشر مواتية للشركات الكبرى الموجودة في الشمال الشرقي ، مثل البنوك والسكك الحديدية والمصنعين ، بينما كان المزارعون الصغار مثل أولئك الذين ذهبوا تلقى الغرب القليل جدا.

حاول كلا الحزبين استغلال السخط الناتج عن ذلك ، من خلال وعد الرجل الصغير ببعض المساعدة الفيدرالية التي كانت قد ذهبت في السابق إلى قطاع الأعمال. من هذه النقطة فصاعدًا ، تمسك الديموقراطيون بهذا الموقف و [مدش] يفضلون البرامج الاجتماعية الممولة اتحاديًا والمزايا و [مدش] بينما كان الجمهوريون مدفوعين تدريجيًا إلى موقف معادٍ لحكومة عدم التدخل.

وأشار راوشواي ، من منظور تجاري ، إلى أن ولاءات الأحزاب لم تتغير حقًا. كتب: "على الرغم من أن الخطاب وإلى حد ما سياسات الأحزاب تغير الأماكن ، فإن أنصارهم الأساسيين لا يفعلون ذلك ، أي أن الجمهوريين لا يزالون ، في جميع أنحاء ، حزب الشركات الأكبر ، إنه فقط في الشركات الكبرى في الحقبة السابقة تريد حكومة أكبر لكنها لا تريد في الحقبة اللاحقة ".

بعبارة أخرى ، في وقت سابق ، كانت الشركات بحاجة إلى أشياء لا يمكن إلا لحكومة أكبر توفيرها ، مثل تطوير البنية التحتية والعملة والتعريفات. بمجرد أن أصبحت هذه الأشياء في مكانها الصحيح ، أصبحت الحكومة الصغيرة غير المتدخلة أفضل للأعمال التجارية.

مصادر إضافية:

نُشر في الأصل على Live Science. تم نشر هذه المقالة في الأصل في 24 سبتمبر 2012 وتم تحديثها في 2 نوفمبر 2020.


قلق الانفصال عند الحيوانات الأليفة

القلق من الانفصال عند الحيوانات الأليفة أمر حقيقي والتعرف على علامات التحذير أمر مهم.

منذ مارس ، تطلب Covid-19 من معظم العالم الحجر الصحي في منازلهم. انتهى الأمر بغالبية الناس إلى العمل من المنزل لمدة خمسة أشهر تقريبًا. كان هذا يعني أن أصحاب الحيوانات الأليفة كانوا دائمًا مع حيواناتهم الأليفة مما يمنحهم الاهتمام ، واللعب معهم ، والسماح لهم بالخروج وما إلى ذلك ، لذلك ، عندما بدأ العالم ينفتح ببطء مرة أخرى وبدأ أصحاب الحيوانات الأليفة في العودة إلى جداول العمل العادية في الحياة بعيدًا عن المنزل ، وأصحاب الحيوانات الأليفة لاحظوا اختلافًا في طريقة تصرف حيوانهم الأليف. يصاب العديد من الحيوانات الأليفة بقلق الانفصال خاصة خلال هذا الوقت المجنون عندما يكون معظم الناس عالقين بالداخل بالكاد يغادرون المنزل.

يمكن أن يؤدي قلق الحيوانات الأليفة من الانفصال إلى:

المضغ والحفر والتدمير

ما الذي يسبب قلق الانفصال:

يمكن أن يسبب عدد من الأشياء قلق الانفصال في الحيوانات الأليفة. سبب واضح في الوقت الحالي هو أن فيروس كوفيد -19 يتطلب من الأفراد البقاء في المنزل لفترات طويلة من الزمن. ثم تمكن هؤلاء الأفراد من العودة إلى حياتهم اليومية تاركين الحيوانات الأليفة لفترات طويلة من الزمن. سبب آخر هو أن بعض الكلاب التي يمكن تبنيها قد يكون لديها قلق الانفصال عند تبنيها لأول مرة لأنهم يخشون أن يغادر ولي أمرهم. سبب آخر هو أنه إذا تعرض حيوان أليف لتغيير مفاجئ في روتينه الطبيعي على سبيل المثال ، يمكن أن يتسبب فيروس كورونا في المقابل في إثارة قلق الانفصال لديهم. اعلم أن الحركة أيضًا يمكن أن تسبب قلق الانفصال ، لذا إذا تحركت مع كلبك كثيرًا ، فقد يؤدي ذلك إلى إثارة قلق الانفصال في حيوانك الأليف.

كيفية الحفاظ على قلق الانفصال:

إذا كان حيوانك الأليف يعاني من حالة خفيفة من قلق الانفصال ، فحاول أن تتحول عندما تغادر إلى شيء مثير لحيوانك الأليف. قد يعني هذا أن تقدم لهم المكافآت قبل أن تغادر حتى يبدأوا في ربط مغادرتك بالحصول على مكافأة. قد يكون من المفيد أيضًا أن تترك لهم أحجية مثل الألعاب مثل العلامة التجارية KONG التي تقدم ألعابًا يمكنك وضعها فيها أو وضع طعام مثل زبدة الفول السوداني أو الجبن. ستشتت انتباه حيوانك الأليف لفترة من الوقت ، ويحصل على مكافأة عندما يلعبون باللعبة. تحاول هذه الألعاب تقديمها لحيوانك الأليف فقط عندما تغادر المنزل. سيؤدي ذلك إلى تدريب حيوانك الأليف على البدء في الاستمتاع بالوقت الذي تغادر فيه لأنهم يعلمون أنه سيحصلون على مكافأة.

إذا كان حيوانك الأليف يعاني من حالة معتدلة من قلق الانفصال ، فقد يستغرق الأمر وقتًا أطول حتى يعتاد على مغادرتك. هذا يعني أن عملية تركهم أبطأ. ابدأ في ترك حيوانك الأليف لفترات قصيرة في كل مرة واستمر في مكافأته. عندما يبدأون في التعود عليها ، قم بزيادة الفترة التي غادرت فيها. بمرور الوقت ، سيبدأ حيوانك الأليف في إدراك أنه بلوطي لقد ذهبت لأنهم يتلقون مكافآت. للكلاب الذين يعانون من قلق شديد خاصة عندما يلاحظون أنك ترتدي حذاء أو تمسك بمفاتيحك. بالنسبة لهذه الحيوانات الأليفة ، حاول ربط هذه العناصر مع عدم المغادرة دائمًا. حاول استخدام هذه العناصر ولكن لا تترك لتظهر لحيوانك الأليف أنه لا يخاف من هذه العناصر. إذا كان لديك حيوان أليف يتبعك عادة في الجوار ، فحاول القيام بأشياء مثل إخبار كلبك بالجلوس والبقاء خارج باب الحمام أثناء دخولك تلك الغرفة. قم تدريجياً بزيادة الوقت الذي تترك فيه حيوانك الأليف على الجانب الآخر من الباب. هذا يدرب حيوانًا أليفًا يمكن أن يكون بمفرده وسيكون على ما يرام. ستستغرق هذه العملية بعض الوقت ، لذا كن هادئًا وصبورًا مع حيوانك الأليف. يجب أن تبدأ هذه العملية في غرفة ولكن يجب أن يفيك الوقت الإضافي بقدرتك على مغادرة منزلك والخروج دون أن يتبعك حيوانك الأليف. استمر في مراقبة علامات الإجهاد في حيوانك الأليف مثل السرعة والارتجاف واللهاث وما إلى ذلك. إذا ظهرت أي من هذه العلامات وغيرها ، فتراجع خطوة إلى الوراء وتحرك بشكل أبطأ. خلال هذه العملية الشاملة ، من المهم أن تأخذها ببطء ، لذا حاول ألا تترك حيوانك الأليف على الإطلاق ، الأمر الذي قد يكون صعبًا للغاية. حاول أن ترتب ما إذا كنت بحاجة لمغادرة شخص ما مثل صديق يمكن أن يتوقف ويكون مع حيوانك الأليف أو حاول استخدام خدمة الرعاية النهارية للكلاب فقط حتى لا يكون حيوانك الأليف وحيدًا تمامًا.

بعض النصائح الأخرى:

عند إلقاء التحية على حيوانك الأليف بعد رحيله ، قل مرحباً بهدوء ثم تجاهله حتى يبدأ في التزام الهدوء. نفس الشيء مع قول وداعًا ، ابق هادئًا ولا تستسلم لكونك متوحشًا ومجنونًا. لتهدئتهم حاول أن تجعلهم يؤدون مهمة يعرفونها مثل الجلوس أو الجلوس. نصيحة أخرى هي تدريب قفص محتمل لمحبوبتك. إذا ربط حيوانك الأليف قفصه بكونه مكانًا آمنًا ، فقد يخفف ذلك من قلقه عندما تذهب للمغادرة. يمكن أن يكون مفيدًا أيضًا إذا لم تضع صندوقًا لحيوانك الأليف لتوفير غرفة آمنة يتقاضى حيوانك الأليف رسومًا أكثر راحة فيها. نصيحة أخرى هي توفير الكثير من التحفيز الذهني لحيوانك الأليف مثل الحلوى والألعاب. حاول أيضًا إعطاء كلبك نوعًا من التمارين قبل أن تغادر كل يوم. كما أن ترك الأطعمة والأطعمة المخفية لحيوانك الأليف ليجدها طوال اليوم سيبقيها مشغولة ومستمتعة. إذا لم تساعدك أي من النصائح المذكورة أعلاه ، فحاول طلب المساعدة من متخصص في سلوكيات الحيوانات الأليفة. سيكونون قادرين على تحديد نظام لمساعدتك أنت وحيوانك الأليف على التحسن. قد يكون الدواء ضروريًا أيضًا للحالات الشديدة ، إذا جاز التعبير مع طبيب بيطري حول الخيارات المختلفة لحيوانك الأليف.

يمكن أن يكون قلق الانفصال شائعًا في الحيوانات الأليفة خاصة بعد العام الذي يمر به الجميع. ابحث عن علامات قلق الانفصال في حيواناتك الأليفة ولاحظ الطرق المختلفة التي يمكنك من خلالها مساعدة حيوانك الأليف في التحسن. تذكر أيضًا عدم معاقبة حيوانك الأليف أبدًا على أي سلوكيات مقلقة. ابذل قصارى جهدك لعدم الانضباط واستخدم هذه النصائح بدلاً من ذلك لتجنب السلوكيات المستقبلية. يمكن الحفاظ على قلق الانفصال بالصبر.


الحقيقة المزعجة حول الحزب الجمهوري

عندما تفكر في الحزب الجمهوري ، ما الذي يخطر ببالك؟ إذا كنت مثل العديد من الأمريكيين ، فيمكنك ربط الحزب الجمهوري بالعنصرية والتمييز على أساس الجنس وعدم المساواة العامة. إنها رواية مدفوعة بشكل شائع من قبل وسائل الإعلام والأوساط الأكاديمية ذات الميول اليسارية ، ولكن كما أوضحت كارول سوين ، أستاذة العلوم السياسية السابقة في فاندربيلت ، كان الحزب الجمهوري مسؤولاً في الواقع عن كل تقدم تقريبًا للأقليات والنساء في تاريخ الولايات المتحدة - ولا يزال بطل المساواة هذا اليوم.

على عكس التوصيفات الشعبية للحزبين ، فإن الحزب الجمهوري لديه تاريخ أطول في النضال من أجل الحقوق المدنية من الحزب الديمقراطي.

بعد تأسيس الحزب الجمهوري في عام 1854 ، وعد برنامجه الأول بهزيمة "تلك الآثار المزدوجة من البربرية: تعدد الزوجات والعبودية".

خشي الجمهوريون من أنه مع تحول المناطق الغربية إلى دول ، فإن تعدد الزوجات ، الذي سمح للرجال بالزواج من عدة نساء ، وقد تتوسع العبودية.

فيديو ذو صلة: "الحقيقة المزعجة حول الحزب الديمقراطي" - كارول سوين

حقيقة مزعجة: تأسس الحزب الجمهوري جزئيًا لمحاربة العبودية - وحاول الديمقراطيون الوقوف في طريقهم.

تم انتخاب أول رئيس جمهوري ، أبراهام لنكولن ، في عام 1860.

بعد ستة أسابيع من انتخاب لينكولن ، صوتت ولاية ساوث كارولينا ، وهي ولاية يهيمن عليها الديمقراطيون ، للانفصال عن الاتحاد.

أدت الحرب الأهلية التي أعقبت ذلك إلى تمرير الجمهوريين للتعديل الثالث عشر ، الذي حرر العبيد.

Republicans next passed the 14th Amendment, which gave African Americans citizenship.

Republicans then passed the 15th Amendment, which gave African Americans the vote.

Related video: “Why Did the Democratic South Become Republican?” – Carol Swain

The Republican Party was the first to include minority candidates and was more diverse than the Democratic Party for a century.

Shortly after the Civil War, the first black senator, Hiram Revels, and the first black congressman, Jefferson Long, were sworn in. Both of them were Republicans.

The first female member of Congress, Jeannette Rankin, was a Republican.

The first Hispanic senator, Joseph Hernandez, was Republican.

The first Asian senator, Hiram Fong, was Republican as well.

Related video: “Who Are the Racists: Conservatives or Liberals?” – Derryck Green

The Republican Party has a long history of fighting for women’s rights, including the right to vote.

In 1862, the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was passed by the Republican-controlled Congress to put an end to polygamy, which threatens women’s rights.

In 1868, the Republican Party Platform included a plank calling for a woman’s right to vote.

In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.

Republicans have also always advocated for free economies, which provides more wealth and opportunity for women and minorities.

Women in free economies earn nearly ten times the income as women in non-free economies.

It was the Republican Party, not the Democratic Party, that led the charge for a woman’s right to vote.

Republicans supported women’s suffrage since the party was founded in the mid-1800s.

In 1868, the Republican Party Platform included a plank calling for a woman’s right to vote.

In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.

In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage.

The new women voters helped elect Republican Warren G. Harding in the 1920 election.

Susan B. Anthony partnered with Republicans, not Democrats, to write the text of what would become the 19th Amendment.

Activist Susan B. Anthony helped the Republicans write the text of what would eventually become the 19th Amendment.

In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress.

In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage.

The new women voters helped elect Republican Warren G. Harding in the 1920 election.

The Republican Party’s views on economic freedom have encouraged the promotion of civil rights.

Republican views on economic freedom encouraged the promotion of civil rights.

In the 1920s, Republican President Calvin Coolidge declared that the rights of African Americans are “just as sacred as those of any other citizen. It is both a public and private duty to protect those rights.”

By contrast, Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt snubbed famed black sprinter Jesse Owens, a staunch Republican, after he won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

It was a Republican president, Dwight Eisenhower, who sent the 101st Airborne Division to escort black students into Little Rock’s Central High when Arkansas’ Democratic governor refused to integrate the state’s public schools in 1957.

WATCH: “The Inconvenient Truth About the Democratic Party” – Carol Swain

Inconvenient fact: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.

Democrats have tried to remove themselves from their own racist history while propagating the myth that the Republican Party became racist during the 1960s.

The Civil Rights Act of 1960, which outlawed poll taxes and other racist measures meant to keep blacks from voting, was supported by Republicans.

Its follow-up bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.

Democrats during the 1960s combined liberal economic views with racist views on African Americans.

Related video: “Why Did the Democratic South Become Republican?” – Carol Swain

Related reading: “The Party of Civil Rights” – Kevin D. Williamson

These words are virtually interchangeable—at least, according to most professors, journalists, and celebrities. So, are they right? Let’s take a look at history.

The Republican Party was created in 1854. The first Republican Party platform, adopted at the party’s first national convention in 1856, promised to defeat, quote, “those twin relics of barbarism: polygamy and slavery.”

Those “twin relics” were spreading into the western territories. Republicans feared that as those territories became states, polygamy and slavery might become permanent parts of American life. Polygamy—the marriage of one man to multiple women—devalued women and made them a kind of property. Slavery, of course, did the same to blacks. حرفيا.

The Democrats were so opposed to the Republicans and their anti-slavery stance that in 1860, just six weeks after the election of the first Republican president, Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina, a state dominated by Democrats, voted to secede from the union. The Civil War that followed was the bloodiest war in US history. It led to the passage, by Republicans, of the 13th Amendment, which freed the slaves the 14th Amendment, which gave them citizenship and the 15th Amendment which gave them the vote.

In 1870, the first black senator and the first black congressman were sworn in—both Republicans. In fact, every black representative in the House until 1935 was a Republican. And every black senator until 1979 was, too. For that matter, the first female member of Congress was a Republican the first Hispanic governor and senator were Republicans. The first Asian senator? انت وجدت الفكرة.

Republicans also kept their pledge to defend women’s rights. In 1862, the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was passed by the Republican-controlled Congress to put an end to polygamy.

In 1920, after 52 years of Democratic Party opposition, the 19th Amendment was ratified thanks to the Republican Congress, which pressured Democratic President Woodrow Wilson to drop his opposition to women’s rights. In the final tally, only 59 percent of House Democrats and 41 percent of Senate Democrats supported women’s suffrage. That’s compared to 91 percent of House Republicans and 82 percent of Senate Republicans. There certainly was a “war on women”—and it was led by the Democratic Party.

But while Republicans had won a major battle for women’s rights, the fight for blacks’ civil rights had a long way to go. In the 1920s, Republican President Calvin Coolidge declared that the rights of blacks are “just as sacred as those of any other citizen.”

By contrast, when famed sprinter Jesse Owens, a staunch Republican, won four gold medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, he was snubbed by Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt only invited white Olympians to the White House.

Two decades later, it was a Republican President, Dwight Eisenhower, who sent the 101st Airborne Division to escort black students into Little Rock’s Central High when Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus—a Democrat—refused to honor a court order to integrate the state’s public schools.

The Civil Rights Act of 1960, which outlawed poll taxes and other racist measures meant to keep blacks from voting, was filibustered by 18 Democrats for 125 hours. Not one Republican senator opposed the bill. Its follow-up bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, is one of the landmark pieces of legislation in American history. That, too, survived a filibuster by Democrats thanks to overwhelming Republican support.

But, you might be thinking, all that’s in the past. What have Republicans done for women and blacks lately? The answer you’d hear from professors, journalists and celebrities is. “not much.” And this time, they’d be right. They’d be right because the Republican Party treats blacks and women as it treats everyone: as equals.

The Democratic Party never has, and it still doesn’t. Today’s Democrats treat blacks and women as victims who aren’t capable of succeeding on their own.

The truth is, this is just a new kind of contempt.

So, there is a party with a long history of racism and sexism. but it ain't the Republicans.


How the Republican Party Became The Party of Racism

According to Pew Research, 83 percent of the registered voters who identify as Republican are non-Hispanic whites. The Republican Party is whiter than Tilda Swinton riding a polar bear in a snowstorm to a Taylor Swift concert.

Why isn’t anyone laughing? Is this thing on?

And not only is the Grand Ole Party unapologetically white, recently it has been disposing of its dog whistles in favor of bullhorns, becoming more unabashedly racist every day. Aside from its leader excusing a white supremacist murder, calling Mexicans “rapists,” referring to “shithole countries” and settling multiple discrimination lawsuits, there is an abundance of evidence that shows the party’s racism.

Nearly half of the country (49 percent) believes Donald Trump is racist but 86 percent of Republicans say he is not, according to a recent Quinnipiac University poll . The same survey shows that 79 percent of Republicans approve of the way the president handles race. Other data points include:

  • 52 percent of voters who supported Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election believed blacks are “less evolved” than whites, according to researchers at the Kellog School of Management .
  • In a 2018 YouGov poll , 59 percent of Republicans agreed: “If blacks would only try harder, they would be as well off as whites.”
  • The same YouGov poll revealed that 59 percent of self-identified Republicans believe blacks are treated fairly by the criminal justice system.
  • 70 percent of Republicans agreed that increased diversity hurts whites.
  • Republican-appointed judges give black defendants longer jail sentences, according to a Harvard study released in May .
  • 55 percent of white Republicans agreed “blacks have worse jobs, income and housing than white people” because “most just don’t have the motivation or willpower to pull themselves up out of poverty” according to the Washington Post’s review of data from the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center.
  • Nearly twice as many Republicans than Democrats (42 percent versus 24 percent) believe that blacks are lazier than whites, according to the same NORC poll.
According to Republicans, Black People Are Stupid and Lazy

In the latest round of “studies confirming stuff we already knew,” newly released opinion-poll data

Some would argue that having a racist as the head of a party doesn’t necessarily make the entire party racist, which is true. But there is not a single significant poll that shows Republican voters with lower negative feelings about non-white populations versus Democrats or independents. They have become the party of racism.

But how did the party get that way?

Stop me if you’ve heard this one before: The Democrats are the real racists because the GOP is the party of Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr. Surely you’ve read the oft-repeated anecdote about how the Republican Party ended slavery and most importantly, fought for the passage of the Civil Rights Act.

They say the best jokes are based in reality. So when accusations of racism enter into any political debate, conservatives invariably regurgitate those previously-mentioned bullet points from the recurring, well-rehearsed Republican comedy routine.

What they fail to mention, however, is that the party to which they refer to no longer exists. The only thing that remains of the original Republican P arty is the name. And how the Grand Ole Party transformed itself from the party of Lincoln into the current version—a white, Southern party rife with racial resentment—has become a forgotten tale that takes advantage of America’s lack of historical knowledge and abundance of short-term memory when it comes to race.

It is true that the Republican P arty was founded on the principles of anti-slavery. They were so in favor of ending America’s peculiar institution that they were often called “Black Republicans” as a slur. They also believed in welcoming immigrants with open arms, elected the first woman to Congress and supported black suffrage.

In fact, most blacks identified with the GOP from Reconstruction until the election of Franklin Roosevelt. Until Carol Mosely Braun’s election in 1992, every African American who served in the United States Senate belonged to the Republican P arty. Twenty-one black men served in the House of Representatives before a black Democrat was elected. It was the party of progressive values.

The Democratic Party, on the other hand, was the party of the South. It was the party of social conservatism. It wanted to preserve slavery and segregation. It opposed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. It was the party of states rights, small government and Jim Crow.

The Democrats wouldn’t even allow blacks at the convention until 1924 , mostly to appease the Southern base of the party still butthurt about losing the Civil War (they still haven’t gotten over that one). After the Civil War, the Democrats in the “Solid South” blamed Republicans for ending slavery and refused to vote for them.

That something was racism.

After Democratic President Harry Truman’s desegregated the Army and the Democratic Party said they would support laws that ended Jim Crow, 35 delegates from the Deep South walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the Dixiecrat Party. They elected Strom Thurmond as their leader, who would never identify as a Democrat again.

In 1957, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower sent f ederal troops into Arkansas to desegregate Little Rock Central High School. In 1963, John F. Kennedy, a Democrat, broke with the party ideology and used Eisenhower’s playbook to federalize the Alabama National Guard and force the desegregation at the University of Alabama.

Then came the breaking point that would basically change the party affiliation of Southern voters. Shortly before the election of 1964, Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act.

The “Solid South” would never vote for a Democrat p resident again.

If Ku Klux Klan members started wearing Black Lives Matter T-shirts, would that automatically make them a civil rights organization? Suppose Donald Trump changed his name to Malcolm X. Would he immediately become a human rights activist?

That’s what happened to the Republican P arty.

Republicans would like you to believe that Republicans supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Democrats opposed it, which is only جزئيا حقيقية. To understand the change in both parties’ ideology, all one has to do is count the votes .

  • There were 94 Southern Democrats in the House of Representatives. 7 voted for the bill.
  • There were 10 Southern Republicans in the House of Representatives. Zero voted for the bill.
  • Northern house Democrats voted in favor of the bill 145-9
  • Northern House Republicans favored the bill 138-24
  • Of the 21 Southern Senators (Democrat or Republican), only 1 voted in favor of the Civil Rights Act (A Texas Democrat).

As you can see, it wasn’t the Democrats who opposed the Civil Rights Act and the Republicans who favored it. Everyone supported the Civil Rights Act except the South. كان Southern politicians from both parties who voted against the legislation. The reason Republicans say they supported the bill is that there weren’t very many Southern Republicans in Congress in 1964.

The Civil Rights Act was signed on July 2, 1964. In the presidential elections that year, 94 percent of nonwhite voters voted for Johnson boosting him to a win over Barry Goldwater.

But Goldwater, a Republican, managed to win five Southern states in that election, which was unheard of for a Republican. How did Goldwater do that? He won those states by opposing the Civil Rights Act.

After the bill passed, Strom Thurmond left the Democratic P arty, as did many Southern w hites. In 1968, he teamed up with Richard Nixon, the 1968 Republican p residential candidate, and convinced Nixon that a Republican could win the South if he was willing to dog-whistle racism to the Southern voters.

Along with H.R. Haldeman, they developed the “ Southern Strategy ,” by emphasizing to white voters in the South that: “[T]he whole problem is really the blacks. The key is to devise a system that recognized this while not appearing to.”

Nixon won the 1968 election by carrying seven southern states, a remarkable feat for a Republican. In the 1972 election, he doubled down on the racist rhetoric and won every single state in the South.

Since that election, no Democratic candidate has won a majority of the old Confederate states formerly known as the “Solid South.” The old Confederate states fused into a Republican voting block few Democrats have been able to penetrate.

In 1981, Lee Atwater, the political campaign architect who refined the Southern Strategy for Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, described the Republican party’s winning template:

You start out in 1954 by saying, “Nigger, nigger, nigger.” By 1968, you can’t say “nigger”—that hurts you, backfires. So you say stuff like, uh, forced busing, states’ rights, and all that stuff, and you’re getting so abstract. Now, you’re talking about cutting taxes, and all these things you’re talking about are totally economic things and a byproduct of them is, blacks get hurt worse than whites. . “We want to cut this,” is much more abstract than even the busing thing, uh, and a hell of a lot more abstract than “Nigger, nigger.”

Not only did the pro-segregation, anti-black Southerners switch sides, but they brought their political ideology with them. The Democratic P arty is now the progressive party that welcomes immigrants and the Republican P arty has become the party of small government, law and order and conservatism. In 2016, 73 percent of white voters in the South voted Republican.

It is now the party of the alt-right. It is the party of the Willie Horton ad and birtherism. It is the party of Donald Trump, the “Muslim ban,” the border wall, David Duke and all the other white supremacists running for election on the Republican ticket in the midterm elections.


Republican Party Platform

The Republican Party was formed in 1854, the same year the Missouri Compromise was repealed under the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Two years later, during the election of 1856, the Republicans drafted their first presidential party platform, declaring the right and the duty of Congress “to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism—polygamy and slavery.” (Polygamy was a reference to the Mormons in the Utah territory, created in 1850 as part of the laws that made up the Compromise of 1850.) The Republican candidate for president that year, John C. Fremont (1813–1890), narrowly lost to James Buchanan (1791–1868), the Democratic candidate. In 1860, the Republicans drafted a party platform dominated by the slavery issue and, after several ballots, nominated Abraham Lincoln for president and Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for vice president.

Source: Republican Party Platform of 1860, online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project, https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/273296.

Resolved that we, the delegated representatives of the Republican electors of the United States, in convention assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country, unite in the following declarations:

First. That the history of the nation during the last four years has fully established the propriety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party, and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature, and now more than ever before demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph.

Second. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the federal Constitution, “That all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,” is essential to the preservation of our Republican institutions and that the federal Constitution, the rights of the states, and the Union of the states, must and shall be preserved.

Third. That to the Union of the states this nation owes its unprecedented increase in population its surprising development of material resources its rapid augmentation of wealth its happiness at home and its honor abroad and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for disunion, come from whatever source they may and we congratulate the country that no Republican member of Congress has uttered or countenanced the threats of disunion so often made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with applause from their political associates and we denounce those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the imperative duty of an indignant people sternly to rebuke and forever silence.

Fourth. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the states, and especially the right of each state, to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.

Fifth. That the present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehension in its measureless subserviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as is especially evident in its desperate exertions to force the infamous Lecompton Constitution[1] upon the protesting people of Kansas in construing the personal relation between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons in its attempted enforcement everywhere, on land and sea, through the intervention of Congress and of the federal courts, of the extreme pretensions of a purely local interest, and in its general and unvarying abuse of the power entrusted to it by a confiding people.

Sixth. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless extravagance which pervades every department of the federal government that a return to rigid economy and accountability is indispensable to arrest the systematic plunder of the public treasury by favored partisans while the recent startling developments of frauds and corruptions at the federal metropolis, show that an entire change of administration is imperatively demanded.

Seventh. That the new dogma that the Constitution of its own force carries slavery into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, at variance with the explicit provisions of that instrument itself, with cotemporaneous exposition, and with legislative and judicial precedent, is revolutionary in its tendency and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country.

Eighth. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom that as our Republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, ordained that no “person should be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law,”[2] it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it and we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.

Ninth. That we brand the recent reopening of the African slave trade, under the cover of our national flag, aided by perversions of judicial power, as a crime against humanity, and a burning shame to our country and age, and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression of that execrable traffic.

Tenth. That in the recent vetoes by the federal governors of the acts of the legislatures of Kansas and Nebraska, prohibiting slavery in those territories, we find a practical illustration of the boasted Democratic principle of non-intervention and popular sovereignty, embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and a demonstration of the deception and fraud involved therein.

Eleventh. That Kansas should of right be immediately admitted as a state, under the Constitution recently formed and adopted by her people, and accepted by the House of Representatives.

Twelfth. That while providing revenue for the support of the general government by duties upon imports, sound policy requires such an adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country, and we commend that policy of national exchanges which secures to the workingmen liberal wages, to agriculture remunerating prices, to mechanics and manufacturers an adequate reward for their skill, labor and enterprise, and to the nation commercial prosperity and independence.

Thirteenth. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the public lands held by actual settlers, and against any view of the free homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or suppliants for public bounty, and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete and satisfactory homestead measure which has already passed the House.

Fourteenth. That the Republican party is opposed to any change in our naturalization laws, or any state legislation by which the rights of citizenship hitherto accorded by emigrants from foreign lands shall be abridged or impaired and in favor of giving a full and efficient protection to the rights of all classes of citizens, whether native or naturalized, both at home and abroad.

Fifteenth. That appropriation by Congress for river and harbor improvements of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of an existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution and justified by the obligation of government to protect the lives and property of its citizens.

Sixteenth. That a railroad to the Pacific Ocean is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country that the federal government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction and that, as preliminary thereto, a daily overland mail should be promptly established.

Seventeenth. Finally, having thus set forth our distinctive principles and views, we invite the cooperation of all citizens, however differing on other questions who substantially agree with us in their affirmance and support.


History of the Republican Party

The Republican Party was the result of a movement against the Kansas Nebraska Act, which extended slavery further across the United States. The first meeting against this Act, and where the term ‘Republican’ was suggested as the name for the new party, was conducted in Ripon, Wisconsin, on March 20, 1854. From thereon in, the Republican Party rapidly rose on the back of its radical beliefs and anti-slavery position.

The American Midwest saw the most number of Republican Party tickets, followed by the Eastern states. Within six years, every Northern state had a Republican governor. The South saw very few efforts in organizing the Republican Party, apart from a few areas that were close to the Free states.

The party came into the foray as a major political force with the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. The American Civil War soon followed as pro-slavery southern Democrats objected to the anti-slavery views of Lincoln. In the years during and after the Civil War, the Republican Party headed by Lincoln went on to pass a number of laws and make significant constitutional amendments that banned slavery and attempted to give more rights to the blacks. This was also the era of the Radical Republicans, a faction of the Republican Party that demanded harsh measures against the Confederates and slavery. Lincoln was able to hold them off, but this changed with his death and the arrival of Andrew Johnson as President.

Although Johnson seemed favorable to the Radicals at first, he soon took the path of moderation and formed an alliance between Democrats and Republicans. By 1866, the Radical Republicans won a sweeping victory and took over the Reconstruction era, which included a number of key laws being passed and the impeachment of Johnson.

Two years later, Ulysses S. Grant became President and the Congress was under the control of the Radicals. This era was marked by aggressive attempts by the party to build their base in the South with the help of the United States Army detachments. There were clashes between local Republican groups, called Union Leagues, and Ku Klux Klan members, leading to the death of thousands.

For the next century or so, the South continued to be dominated by Democrats. In fact, the entire South was called the Solid South in reference to the strength of the Democratic Party in the region. In contrast, the Republican Party only controlled small parts of the Appalachian Mountains and occasionally competed for office in Border States. The status quo, however, changed in 1948 when the Democrats alienated its Southern base in two ways.

The first was the adoption of civil rights by the Democratic National Convention and the second was the signing of the Executive Order 9981, signifying the racial integration of the U.S. armed forces. The Deep South formed a regional party with J. Strom Thurmond at the head, but the outer South remained with the Democrats and President Truman.

The Civil Rights movement, in fact, was the turning point for the Democrats and the Republican Party. As hardcore Democratic governors like Lester Maddox (Georgia), George Wallace (Alabama), and Ross Barnett (Mississippi) resisted integration in their states, an increasing number of Democrats began to go against their policies of racial separation and embraced integration. The Civil Rights Acts was passed in 1964 and 1965, freeing the South from centuries-old barriers that prevented them from joining the Republican Party and liberating them from old racial issues. Nevertheless, the South did not immediately transition to the Republican Party. It took decades, starting from voting Republican during presidential elections and moving on to voting for Republican senators for seats in the Congress.

After 1980, the Republican Party began to attract a majority of the Evangelical Christians, who had been political neutral until then. This was due to the increasingly liberal stance of the Democratic Party, especially on controversial issues like abortion. As more conservatives went from the Democrats to the Republics, the Republican Party became more conservative and liberal Republicans joined the Democratic Party.


Eisenhower & Nixon

Dwight Eisenhower, an internationalist allied with the Dewey wing, challenged Taft in 1952 on foreign policy issues. لم يكن الرجلان بعيدين عن بعضهما البعض في القضايا الداخلية. Eisenhower's victory broke a 20 year Democratic lock on the White House. Eisenhower did not try to roll back the New Deal, but he did expand the Social Security system and built the Interstate Highway system.

The conservatives in 1964 made a comeback under the leadership of Barry Goldwater who defeated Nelson Rockefeller as the Republican candidate in the 1964 presidential convention. Goldwater was strongly opposed to the New Deal and the United Nations, but he rejected isolationism and containment, calling for an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy.

In 1968, using growing voter disgust at Johnson's Great Society programs, Civil Rights, urban violence, and U.S. Supreme Court decisions that ended school prayer, liberalized pornography laws, and restricted police action, and the Vietnam War Richard Nixon played to a vast section of American middle-class voters he called the Silent Majority. He won the 1968 Presidential election, but it was another close race.

Any long-term voter movement toward the GOP was interrupted by the Watergate Scandal, which forced Nixon to resign in 1974 under threat of impeachment. Gerald Ford succeeded Nixon and gave him a full pardon--much to the disappointment of most Americans and thereby giving the Democrats a powerful issue they used to sweep the 1974 off-year elections. Ford never fully recovered from the political fallout of this pardon (even within his own party), and in 1976 he barely defeated Ronald Reagan for the nomination. The taint of Watergate and the nation's economic difficulties contributed to the election of Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976, running as a Washington outsider.

Strength of Parties 1977

How the Two Parties Stood after the 1976 Election:

حزب جمهوري ديمقراطي مستقل
معرف الحزب (غالوب) 22% 47% 31%
أعضاء الكونجرس 181 354
منزل 143 292
Senate 38 62
 % House popular vote nationally 42% 56% 2%
في الشرق 41% 57% 2%
في الجنوب 37% 62% 2%
في الغرب الأوسط 47% 52% 1%
في الغرب 43% 55% 2%
حكام 12 37 1
مشرّعو الولاية 2,370 5,128 55
31% 68% 1%
سيطرة الهيئة التشريعية للولاية 18 80 1 *
في الشرق 5 13 0
في الجنوب 0 32 0
في الغرب الأوسط 5 17 1 *
في الغرب 8 18 0
سيطرة الطرف الواحد للدول
من السلطة التشريعية والمحافظ
1 29 0

*The unicameral Nebraska legislature, in fact controlled by the Republicans, is technically nonpartisan.

Source: Everett Carll Ladd Jr. Where Have All the Voters Gone? The Fracturing of America's Political Parties (1978) p.6


Summary of Platform Shifting – An Issues-by-Issue Breakdown

The platform switching, evidenced in the above sections, can be explained a few ways. Below we summarize it by contrasting key platforms of each major party in the First to Third Party Systems with the Fifth Party systems onward:

  • Federalists/Whigs/Third Party Republicans: Strict on immigration, pro-tradition, anti-slavery, no need to separate church and state or offer a bill of rights, pro-globalization, and trade, a central bank, big government, big business, pro-foreign-military-policy. Regulated economy based on the finance industry and global economy.
  • Anti-Federalists/Democratic-Republicans/Third Party Democrats: Pro-immigration, anti-tradition, separate church and state, want bill of rights, limited government, no central bank, pro states’ rights (even if it means slavery), pro-farmer, and anti-war. An unregulated economy based on production at home and farming.
  • Modern Post 64′ Democrats: Pro-immigration, anti-segregation, separation of church and state, want bill of rights (today a second bill of rights for education and healthcare for example), big government, pro central bank, pro subsidization (be it to farmer or corporation), and anti-war in sentiment (albeit generally pro-defense). Regulated economy based on finance industry and global economy.
  • Modern Post 64′ Republicans: Strict on immigration, pro-tradition, no need to separate church and state or offer bill of rights, pro-farmer and certain big businesses, small government, pro-south, and pro-strong military. Unregulated economy based on production at home and farming.

As you can see the Third Party Republicans essentially become Post 64′ Fifth Party Democrats, and the Third Party Democrats essentially become Post 64′ Fifth Party Republicans on many (not all) key issues.

It is worth more than a note to mention that fitting all America’s factions into two parties will always cause some splitting on issues. For instance, some modern Democrats favor private industry, are laissez faire and pro-foreign-military-policy, and some Republicans favor trade-based big business and are pro-foreign-military-policy. This pro-private industry and globalization is largely what the terms neocon و neoliberal denote. [37] [38] In other cases environment or religion is the primary issue for a voter, and this can result in third parties (like the Green party for instance).

With the above said, ignoring minor factions, today we can break down the current major American political factions into a few basic groups (see a more detailed model here):

  • Neoliberal Democrats: Big business Democrats who favor the private market as a means to achieve social justice, tend to favor big government.
  • Populist Social-Liberal Democrats: Favor a less privatized version of social liberalism, social justice and environmental issues take precedence over free-market economics and big business.
  • Neocon Republicans: Big business Republicans who favor the private market and traditional conservative values and aspects of free-market libertarian ideology.
  • Libertarian Republicans: Limited government classical liberals who tend to organize around right-wing ideology. As noted in the first section, sometimes a classical liberal position is seen as socially conservative today.
  • Modern Conservative Republicans: Social and classical conservatives who are voting only on modern conservative issues of religion, immigration, gun laws, etc.

Exactly what party has taken which stance on each issue has changed over time, but as displayed above and detailed below, some common threads can be traced throughout history to clearly illustrate “switching.” Of course, the exact changes that occurred are complex, and involve many third parties.

We can’t always trace a neat line between issues or major parties, but the underlying arguments of “how authoritative should government be?” and “should we sacrifice individual liberty for collective liberty?” will always remain the same. This is what ultimately allows us to spot the factions and platform switching in any era so we can compare that to today.

If we make the above summary into one simple chart, it might look something like this:

A left-right spectrum showing how Lincoln and Reagan are both Republicans, and comparing that to the stances of Hamilton and Jefferson.

“I have just one purpose … and that is to build up a strong progressive Republican Party in this country. If the right wing wants a fight, they are going to get it … before I end up, either this Republican Party will reflect progressivism, or I won’t be with them anymore.” [39] – Eisenhower on being a moderate Republican and “progressive” friend to the New Deal Coalition, a stance that harkens back to Lincoln, but isn’t found again after Republicans like Nixon or Reagan.


Democratic-Republican Party

سيراجع محررونا ما قدمته ويحددون ما إذا كان ينبغي مراجعة المقالة أم لا.

Democratic-Republican Party, originally (1792–98) الحزب الجمهوري, first opposition political party in the United States. Organized in 1792 as the Republican Party, its members held power nationally between 1801 and 1825. It was the direct antecedent of the present Democratic Party.

During the two administrations of Pres. George Washington (1789–97), many former Anti-Federalists—who had resisted adoption of the new federal Constitution (1787)—began to unite in opposition to the fiscal program of Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury. After Hamilton and other proponents of a strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution formed the Federalist Party in 1791, those who favoured states’ rights and a strict interpretation of the Constitution rallied under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, who had served as Washington’s first secretary of state. Jefferson’s supporters, deeply influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution (1789), first adopted the name Republican to emphasize their antimonarchical views. The Republicans contended that the Federalists harboured aristocratic attitudes and that their policies placed too much power in the central government and tended to benefit the affluent at the expense of the common man. Although the Federalists soon branded Jefferson’s followers “Democratic-Republicans,” attempting to link them with the excesses of the French Revolution, the Republicans officially adopted the derisive label in 1798. The Republican coalition supported France in the European war that broke out in 1792, while the Federalists supported Britain (ارى French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars). The Republicans’ opposition to Britain unified the faction through the 1790s and inspired them to fight against the Federalist-sponsored Jay Treaty (1794) and the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).

Notwithstanding the party’s antielitist foundations, the first three Democratic-Republican presidents—Jefferson (1801–09), James Madison (1809–17), and James Monroe (1817–25)—were all wealthy, aristocratic Southern planters, though all three shared the same liberal political philosophy. Jefferson narrowly defeated the Federalist John Adams in the election of 1800 his victory demonstrated that power could be transferred peacefully between parties under the Constitution. Once in office, the Democratic-Republicans attempted to scale back Federalist programs but actually overturned few of the institutions they had criticized (e.g., the Bank of the United States was retained until its charter expired in 1811). Nevertheless, Jefferson made a genuine effort to make his administration appear more democratic and egalitarian: he walked to the Capitol for his inauguration rather than ride in a coach-and-six, and he sent his annual message to Congress by messenger, rather than reading it personally. Federal excises were repealed, the national debt was retired, and the size of the armed forces was greatly reduced. However, the demands of foreign relations (such as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803) often forced Jefferson and his successors into a nationalistic stance reminiscent of the Federalists.

In the 20 years after 1808 the party existed less as a united political group than as a loose coalition of personal and sectional factions. The fissures in the party were fully exposed by the election of 1824, when the leaders of the two major factions, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, were both nominated for president. Meanwhile, William H. Crawford was nominated by the party’s congressional caucus, and Henry Clay, another Democratic-Republican, was nominated by the Kentucky and Tennessee legislatures. Jackson carried the popular vote and a plurality in the electoral college, but because no candidate received a majority of the electoral vote, the presidency was decided by the House of Representatives. Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives, finished fourth and was thus ineligible for consideration he subsequently threw his support to Adams, who was elected president and promptly appointed Clay secretary of state. Following the election, the Democratic-Republicans split into two groups: the National Republicans, who became the nucleus of the Whig Party in the 1830s, were led by Adams and Clay, while the Democratic-Republicans were organized by Martin Van Buren, the future eighth president (1837–41), and led by Jackson. The Democratic-Republicans comprised diverse elements that emphasized local and humanitarian concerns, states’ rights, agrarian interests, and democratic procedures. During Jackson’s presidency (1829–37) they dropped the Republican label and called themselves simply Democrats or Jacksonian Democrats. The name Democratic Party was formally adopted in 1844.


شاهد الفيديو: Republikanska stranka Niš-Osnivačka skupština